Slaves & Slavery

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 :: Slaves & Slavery ::
Information about slaves, slavery, and freedmen in Richmond, VA during the Civil War.

This page features selected references to African-Americans in Civil War Richmond.

Written Accounts

Richmond Dispatch 11/3/1860; adv for the Main Street Hospital for slaves, "near the corner of Main and 26th streets," gives prices and names surgeons, F. W. Hancock and Peachy among them
Richmond Enquirer 1/1/1861; advertisement for a slave dealer underneath the St. Charles Hotel
Richmond Dispatch 5/11/1861; editorial on which song should be the new Confederate National Anthem; very negative towards "Dixie" - it is "purely negro"
Richmond Dispatch 6/5/1861; Negroes are doing good work on the fortifications at Marion Hill (Battery #2)
Richmond Dispatch 6/7/1861; city laborers are at work on the defenses at Marion Hill (Battery #2)
Richmond Dispatch 7/5/1861; George Watt finds a little negro girl "near the new fair grounds"
Richmond Dispatch 7/18/1861; notes that negro workers on the fortifications seem to happy to be aiding "their native state"
Richmond Dispatch 7/24/1861; Runaway slave from the Tredegar Iron Works
Richmond Examiner 7/27/1861; slave of Wm. Greanor was arrested for throwing a rock
Richmond Dispatch 8/2/1861; 15 negro men wanted to work in the Alms House Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 8/12/1861; 3 negro nurses needed for Medical College Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 8/30/1861; 5 negroes caught having a party at Lancastrian Schoolhouse
Richmond Enquirer 9/27/1861; interesting Mayor's Court items: one of the combatants in the "Hill cats/Butcher cats" rock battle unable to prove his good character, and a slave assaults a "free negress," flees the court and leads officers on a foot race, before being sentenced to 39 lashes
Richmond Dispatch 10/11/1861; Aleck, slave of Dr. Wellford, is nurse at St. Charles Hotel. Arrested for theft.
Richmond Dispatch 10/16/1861; N. G. Tumley, Hosp. Steward, adv. for 2 good negro male cooks for Chimborazo.
Richmond Dispatch 10/17/1861; J. H. Greanor's slave George attacks Dr. Wellford's slave Phebe with an axe, in the bottom near the Central depot
Richmond Dispatch 10/18/1861; details on case of axe-wielding slave of Capt. John H. Greanor
Richmond Dispatch 10/25/1861; slaves of John Greanor and John Minor Botts are acquitted of stealing from a sick soldier
Richmond Dispatch 10/30/1861; runaway slave ad., Bellevue Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 11/11/1861; slave of James Royster whipped for stealing coffee from Ga. Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 11/26/1861; Adv. for nurses at Byrd Island Hosp. – one white male & 3 or 4 servants
Richmond Dispatch 12/3/1861; Slave of Pleasant’s & Frayser whipped for stealing bed from 2nd Georgia Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 12/7/1861; 2 negro washerwomen needed at 2nd Ala Hospital
Richmond Enquirer 12/10/1861; "Negro Prisoners of War"
Richmond Dispatch 12/27/1861; Slave of T. & S. Hardgrove punished for providing whiskey to POWs
Richmond Dispatch 12/31/1861; Thos. B. Rees, Main between 9 & 10 wants to hire cook for small family
Richmond Dispatch 1/1/1862; male negro nurses wanted at Georgia Hospital, 21st bw Main & Cary
Richmond Dispatch 3/11/1862; John, slave of Dr. McCaw, gets 25 lashes for stealing supplies from Chimborazo Hospital
Richmond Dispatch

3/21/1862; Tredegar advertises for 40 negroes

Richmond Dispatch 3/28/1862; one of Talbott & Bro.’s negroes shot
Richmond Dispatch 4/18/1862; A. G. Lane wants to hire 35 to 40 male negroes or boys to nurse at Winder Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 4/19/1862; St. George Peachy (Surgeon, Globe Hospital [future GH11]) adv for servants to be nurses, cooks, etc. at new hospitals
Richmond Dispatch 4/22/1862; Banner Hospital (future GH12) needs 3 male nurses & 6 negro men
Richmond Dispatch 4/23/1862; male servants needed, Georgia Hospital 21st & Cary
Richmond Dispatch 4/23/1862; male servants needed, 3rd Georgia Hospital 24th & Franklin
Richmond Dispatch 4/28/1862; 100 free negroes needed as nurses at Winder Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 4/28/1862; slave whipped for stealing corn, VCRR depot
Richmond Dispatch

5/2/1862; Samuel Hardgrove adv for his runaway slave, who worked at Chimborazo and has been seen around Winder Hospital, trying to hire himself out.

Richmond Dispatch 5/8/1862; nice paragraph on city gas works and their use of negroes and laborers (very laudatory toward them)
Richmond Dispatch 5/13/1862; runaway notices for 5 slaves from Tredegar
Richmond Dispatch 5/19/1862; free negro servant of Dr. E. G. Higginbotham at Libby Prison hospital killed by sentinel
Richmond Dispatch 5/27/1862; account of shooting in front of Exchange ends fatally. Victim belonged to G. W. Alexander
Richmond Dispatch 5/29/1862; new rates for black patients at Bellevue Hosp.
Richmond Dispatch 5/31/1862; Man jailed at Castle Godwin for hanging his female slave
Richmond Dispatch 6/7/1862; Henry, employed at Chimborazo, caught with stolen sugar
Richmond Dispatch 6/19/1862; C. R. Rees’ slave jailed for theft
Richmond Enquirer 6/19/1862; man attempts to escape Castle Godwin by blacking his face to look like a negro - recaptured after a chase through Butchertown and "bucked."
Richmond Dispatch 6/20/1862; W. Otho Hill, Asst. Surg., at Battery #7, adv for 2 runaway slaves, from Liggon Hosp
Richmond Whig 6/30/1862; Surg. Lane advertises for two slaves who ran away from the 2nd Division of Winder Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 7/3/1862; G. W. Alexander at Castle Godwin says negro of Jas. Bates now confined there
Richmond Dispatch 7/10/1862; runaway slave from Chimborazo Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 7/10/1862; captured negroes are being used to inter the dead in Oakwood Cemetery
Richmond Dispatch 7/14/1862; 4 male nurses and 4 negroes needed at Louisiana Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 7/15/1862; free negroes conscripted as hospital nurses – most released because they proved other employment
Richmond Dispatch 7/15/1862; Jno. Redford, Keeper of Oakwood Cemetery, adv for two lost negro gravediggers
Richmond Dispatch 7/17/1862; 2 negroes attempt rapes near Coal pits, Chesterfield County. Mrs. Rudd raped, Mrs. Corse escaped. First rapist, slave of Wm. E. Martin, to hang. #2 to be transported away.
Richmond Dispatch 7/19/1862; female slave whipped for theft to Winder Hospital material
Richmond Enquirer 7/19/1862; free negro steals sheets and pillowslips from Winder Hospital, and gets fifteen lashes
Richmond Dispatch 7/21/1862; negro nurse named Bob, GH#4, jailed for theft
Richmond Dispatch 7/21/1862; adv from RDRR for runaway negroes
Richmond Dispatch 7/21/1862; Kent Hospital needs “several good, stout negroes”
Richmond Dispatch 7/21/1862; Wm. Alex. Thom, at Banner Hospital, adv for twenty negroes
Richmond Enquirer 7/21/1862; slave steals a pocket-book at the Baptist Female Institute and sent to prison
Richmond Dispatch 7/24/1862; 20 negroes needed at Banner Hospital (GH#12)
Richmond Dispatch 7/24/1862; negroes needed at Kent Hospital (GH#5)
Richmond Dispatch 7/24/1862; notes on the sale of slaves at an auction on Franklin street
Richmond Dispatch 7/28/1862; Surg. C. D. Rice, formerly of Central Depot Hospital, now at Howard’s Grove. He is now accepting claims against Central Depot Hospital for hire of negroes
Richmond Dispatch 8/2/1862; Elias Griswold adv for drivers - black
Richmond Dispatch 8/2/1862; runaway slave notice for Caroline County negro employed at Tredegar
Richmond Dispatch 8/18/1862; colored nurses needed at Byrd Island Hospital (GH#3)
Richmond Enquirer 8/25/1862; slave given fifteen lashes for stealing surgical instruments from Dr. C. B. Gibson
Richmond Dispatch 8/29/1862; Jno. B. Cary, at Maj. Booker’s office under Spotswood Hotel, hiring out negro woman
Richmond Dispatch 9/2/1862; runaway slave notice for blacksmith hired out to Tredegar foundry
Richmond Dispatch 9/5/1862; Slave of J. E. Johnston arrested for selling liquor to soldiers – sent to Castle Thunder. Also a local white woman named Mary Gleason
Richmond Enquirer 9/8/1862; hilarious account of a man who believes he is the devil and a negro who exploited him
Richmond Dispatch 9/12/1862; Dr. John R. Hinton, Howard Hospital, “corner 25th and 26th sts.,” adv for runaway negro
Richmond Dispatch 9/22/1862; 2 soldiers in Castle Thunder for robbing citizen. Mayor forced to contemplate extent of his authority in city over military personnel. Slave items and prostitution as well.
Richmond Dispatch 9/27/1862; interesting editorial on the “stampede” of negroes that occurs when the Union army approaches – recommends legislation to remove them to the interior when the army approaches. Berates the delusions of slaveowners as to the “fidelity” of their slaves.
Richmond Dispatch 10/7/1862; Mayor’s Court: James Williams, drunk soldier, sent to Castle Thunder;  Hoenniger charges men with burglary, room #44 Spotswood Hotel; slave charged with stealing money from guest at the Ballard House (discharged); free negro without papers ordered whipped for smoking a cigar in the street; another free negro threatens boy in Second Market & used “indecent language” – ordered to be whipped.
Richmond Dispatch 10/20/1862; W. Wilson, steward at Keen Hospital, adv for 2 negro men & 4 negro women
Richmond Dispatch 10/23/1862; negro convicted of stealing bushel of flour from Camp Winder bakery
Richmond Enquirer 10/23/1862; slave ordered whipped for stealing a bag of flour from Winder Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 10/27/1862; elderly countryman sent to Castle Thunder from Fredericksburg, charged with smuggling negroes
Richmond Dispatch 10/28/1862; Mayor's Court: many slave items; Jno. Flinn, of Castle Thunder, before Mayor for theft in prison
Richmond Enquirer 10/29/1862; slave ordered twenty-five lashes for stealing beef from Grant Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 11/1/1862; Dr. Hancock jails free negro for trespassing at hospital
Richmond Dispatch 11/3/1862; Dr. Hancock, GH#18, has 2 colored folks in court for operating unlicensed cookshop beside hospital.
Richmond Dispatch 11/4/1862; Mayor’s Court: Man shot in street dies at Louisiana Hospital; Edward C. Rice, 25VaBn, fined for breaking tray of dishes over negro woman’s head, in street, & slapping her
Richmond Dispatch 11/4/1862; 2 black females wanted as nurses, GH#19, Taylor’s Factory, corner 24th and Franklin
Richmond Dispatch 11/4/1862; C. D. Rice, Surg. in charge, Howard’s Grove, wants to hire black nurses, cooks & laundresses
Richmond Dispatch 11/6/1862; 2 negroes arrested for fighting in street in front of GH#18
Richmond Dispatch 11/7/1862; drunk negroes in front of GH#18 (see above) whipped and jailed
Richmond Dispatch 11/7/1862; Chas. Bell Gibson adv. for 19 black male nurses for GH#1. $18.50 per month.
Richmond Enquirer 11/7/1862; negroes arrested in front of GH#18
Richmond Dispatch 11/8/1862; Mayor’s Court: J. R. Anderson slave whipped for stealing wood;  Mulatto arraigned and whipped for “impudence” to the watchman of the Spotswood Hotel; Police raid Locust Alley – several prostitutes arrested, as well as their “visitors”
Richmond Enquirer 11/8/1862; slave of J. R. Anderson convicted for stealing lumber from the Basin bank - gets fifteen lashes
Richmond Dispatch 11/12/1862; Surg. C. D. Rice, in charge at Howard’s Grove, wants to hire negro nurses, cooks, & laundresses.
Richmond Dispatch 11/13/1862; John Haley, 1SC, drunk, sent to Castle Thunder; John Norman, free negro, ordered a “thrashing” for disturbing the peace near the “new Alms-House.”
Richmond Dispatch 11/14/1862; negroes arrested for theft & counterfeiting. Were stealing unsigned notes from Custom House
Richmond Dispatch 11/14/1862; negro run over by dray on Mayo Bridge
Richmond Dispatch 11/14/1862; 2 negroes arrested for trespassing at Henningsen Hospital
Richmond Dispatch 11/14/1862; mulatto charged with impudent behavior at Spotswood evicted from city
Richmond Dispatch 11/15/1862; update on Custom House theft case
Richmond Dispatch 11/15/1862; 2 trespassers (see yesterday) were punished for Henningsen Hospital case
Richmond Dispatch 12/1/1862; Custom House robbers, slaves, acquitted
Richmond Dispatch 12/2/1862; “Cage Cases:” Emanuel Olliberg jailed “for exposing his person in the street;” slave arrested for killing another slave by stabbing
Richmond Dispatch 12/3/1862; Mayor’s Court items: as usual, many slave items; James A. Minor, NC soldier (see above), to Castle Booker for forgery; Emmanuel Olliberg (see yesterday) fined one dollar and released
Richmond Dispatch 12/11/1862; Mayor’s Court: as usual, many slave items; Mike, negro employed at Chimborazo, gets 25 lashes (drunk, stealing)
Richmond Enquirer 12/11/1862; slave employed at Chimborazo, found drunk in the city, runs from the police, and ordered 25 lashes
Richmond Dispatch 1/12/1863; smallpox hospital for negroes opened at Howard's Grove
Richmond Dispatch 1/12/1863; separate small-pox hospital has been opened for negroes at Howard's Grove by the city council
Richmond Dispatch 5/8/1863; servants and laundresses needed at General Hospital #12
Richmond Dispatch 5/8/1863; ten negro nurses are needed at General Hospital #20
Richmond Examiner 7/21/1863; negro soldier discovered on Belle Isle while paroling prisoners
Richmond Sentinel 8/12/1863; price of slaves is more now than it has been in the past
Richmond Sentinel 8/21/1863; list of imprisoned slaves at Castle Thunder and Libby Prison
Richmond Sentinel 8/28/1863; another slave list from Castle Thunder
Richmond Whig 3/3/1864; six negroes, recaptured from the Yankees, are taken to Castle Thunder
Richmond Whig 3/8/1864; four Yankee negro soldiers are brought to Libby Prison and put in the solitary cells
Richmond Sentinel 4/11/1864; three slaves and a free negro arrested for stealing blankets from Seabrook's Hospital (GH#9)
Richmond Sentinel 5/7/1864; negro injured at Confederate States Arsenal
Richmond Whig 5/7/1864; slave of Jas. H. Grant is seriously injured in an accident at the Arsenal
Richmond Whig 5/31/1864; slave of Dr. Hancock drowns in Shockoe Creek
Richmond Whig 6/30/1864; 2 negroes whipped for stealing meat from Jackson Hospital
Richmond Whig 7/2/1864; Slave of Dr. Tomas Burton is killed by falling into a well
Richmond Whig 7/21/1864; Dr. O. F. Manson's house was broken into by a slave and robbed of 400 pounds of bacon
Richmond Whig 7/23/1864; slave who broke into Dr. O. F. Manson's house was released
Richmond Sentinel 7/22/1864; slave charged with breaking into the home of Dr. O. F. Manson [GH24] and stealing a lot of bacon.
Richmond Whig 7/29/1864; excellent paragraph on the severe beating of a negro Arsenal worker by the foreman of the Smith Shop there for stealing copper. Gives interesting statements regarding the treatment of negroes
Richmond Dispatch 8/10/1864; wounded negroes from Burnside's Corps sent to Castle Thunder
Richmond Whig 8/22/1864; Maryland soldier and free negro committed to Castle Thunder, the latter on charge of piloting Hunter in Amherst county, and the former for being a spy
Richmond Whig 9/15/1864; free negro charged with stealing linens from Stuart Hospital, released after it was found that the Steward of the hospital had already administered a "thrashing"
Richmond Whig 10/27/1864; negro boy is killed after trying to jump on to the Fredericksburg train on Broad street; appeal for this practice to be stopped
Richmond Sentinel 8/5/1864; items from the Mayor's docket: two negro girls are thrashed for calling a white man "poor white trash;" a boy escapee from the Alms House is sent back there after stoning a man at the Petersburg depot
Richmond Sentinel 8/10/1864; 90 wounded prisoners, including a dozen negro soldiers, arrive at Libby. Gives negative commentary on the negro troops' appearance and smell.
Richmond Sentinel 8/26/1864; 80 negro POWs, taken at the Battle of the Crater, are brought to Castle Thunder
Richmond Sentinel 9/10/1864; former keeper of "the Rebel House," under the Exchange Hotel and a free negro escape from Castle Thunder and are recaptured
Richmond Sentinel 10/27/1864; negro boy is killed after trying to jump on to the Fredericksburg train on Broad street; appeal for this practice to be stopped
Richmond Sentinel 11/5/1864; Wm., slave of Sally Tompkins charged with burglary
Richmond Whig 11/5/1864; slave of Sally Tompkins arrested for burglary
Richmond Whig 11/24/1864; one white man and three negroes were killed by the accidental explosion of shells at Tredegar
Richmond Sentinel 3/21/1865; Winder-Jackson Battalion; incl Negroes to parade
Richmond Dispatch 3/23/1865; negroes employed at Winder & Jackson join the army
Richmond Enquirer 3/23/1865; description of the Winder-Jackson Battalion's parade at Capitol square; call for Richmond ladies to produce a flag for this unit
Richmond Enquirer 3/23/1865; details on recruitment of black troops and call for volunteers; rendezvous for negro troops is at Smith's factory, 21st street. T. P. Turner (Libby Prison) is one of the officers
Richmond Sentinel 3/23/1865; description of the Winder-Jackson Battalion's parade at Capitol square
Richmond Sentinel 3/30/1865; slave put in Castle Thunder for helping soldiers desert
Richmond Whig 5/4/1865; "idle colored" women of Manchester have been sent to Belle Isle

Page last updated on 07/17/2008